Taskstream Website stop_school_violence_tshirt-p235542257530959233qd00_400.jpgDove_School_Violence.jpgSchool Violence
Violence is an ongoing problem that most schools in the United States face every day. Violence can be any sort of the following: physical attacks with or without a weapon, threats of a physical attack, rape, sexual battery, and robbery with or without a weapon (NCES, pp.5). According to a study by the National Center for Education Statistics, 96% of students said they felt safe in school. However, 22% of those students said they knew students who brought weapons to school (NCES, pp.5). Even thought many students said they felt safe at school, 53% said a school shooting could happen at their school. According to The National School Safety Center, since the 1992-1993 school year, 270 violent deaths have occurred at schools across our nation and the majority is shooting victims. Also, the NCES did a survey of 1,234 principals in regular public elementary, middle, and high school students in all fifty states. They found that 57% of elementary and secondary school principals said that one or more incidents of violence were reported to the police. The survey also concluded that the most prevalent crime was physical attacks without a weapon and most serious crimes occurred in middle and high schools and in larger city schools. According to a report published by the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, during the 2007-08 school year, 21 school-age children were killed on their school campuses and five committed suicide at school. That same year 85% of public schools documented that at least one violent crime, theft, or other crime occurred on their campuses. From 1992-93 to 2007-08, one to nine youths committed suicide on school campuses each school year, with no pattern of an increase or decrease from year to year. There was an overall decline in rates of victimization at schools for youths aged 12-18 from 1992-2007, but the crime rate on school campuses did not change significantly between 2004-2007 (Zehr).


Causes

Currently, the cause of school violence is a much-debated topic. Ongoing studies debate the media’s large role in exposing violence at a young age. According to the Constitutional Rights Foundation, “By the time the average American child reaches seventh grade, he/she will have witnessed 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence on television.” Violent cartoons’ influence to school violence is also being studied. The music that our children listen to today is influential in the growing concern of school violence.
As new advances in technology begin to surface, Americans are becoming more dependent of the use of technology. Our children of today are learning to use computers at a young age. By giving them access to the Internet at such a young age, cyber abuse becomes a relevant problem. Cyber abuse is considered to be taunting, insulting, or even threats to peers through the use of electronic media. This can include cell-phone text messaging, e-mailing or even blogs. Violent video games have grown in popularity as technology advances. Exposure to violence in video games tends to lead to more pro-violent attitudes in high school.
Environmental impact is also a causing factor to the increased levels of school violence. Race and ethnicity, income levels among other elements are considered risk factors that can contribute to anti-social behaviors including drinking and smoking to violent behaviors and even suicide. A student’s immediate environment, school, community, peer groups and families, have a large influence on their behaviors and attitudes.

Prevention
Regarding preventative measures to insure a safe and secure school environment, Doctor William Pollack insists, “creating a climate of mutual respect, not fear, is essential to keeping schools safe.” (Fritz) and that mean the students in the classroom need to respect their teacher, not fear the teacher as much or more than the threat that may be looming just beyond the classroom door. This is doubly true for elementary school children, who still hold view adults as forces of “supreme power” and may feel intimidated around a teacher or adult who they don’t completely trust. This would explain “why some children … chose to tell an adult, while others did not,” (Fritz) so in order to prevent violence in your school, establish a bond between you, the teacher, and your classroom. The authors of the journal called Aggression and Violent Behavior identified six strategies that could help reduce the vulnerability of schools to a deadly shooting incident. This would include strengthening students' involvement in their school, reducing social aggression through conflict resolution programs, breaking down codes of silence, in which there is an agreement among students not to share information with teachers and parents, establishing resources for trouble and rejected students (Safe School Initiative found that 71% of attackers had experienced some bullying and harassment), increasing basic security measures, and bolstering communication within the school by implementing a text message alert system and communication between school and community agencies. Something to discuss with the faculty at your own school would be to work on creating a rule system that is viewed by the students as both easy to follow and fair. After all, “a student population that is aware of school rules and believes they are fair” (Johnson) is more likely to fall in line with the guidelines set before them.

Now the next step after you have established a dialogue with your students, is to discuss safety procedures amongst your fellow teachers and school board if need be. If your school is without them, you may find it prudent to push for “[installing] video security cameras install school buildings and around the perimeter of the property” (Darden) if only to let students know that their actions on school property will not go unnoticed. Before embarking on this “safety crusade” however, be aware that some people, particularly members of the school board, prefer a “libertarian” approach to school security and feel that students should be given privacy and freedom, not cameras and metal detectors. It will be your job to persuade the school board to take a more proactive role in school security, and can point out that steps need to be taken before tragedy strikes, and that preventing just a single incident can make the addition of more security worthwhile. School boards in particular “are motivated as much by a dread of potential liability
As a sense of foreboding” (Darden) so if they can be convinced that the issue is serious enough, they will be more inclined to take swift and immediate action instead of waiting for the worst to happen.

While school violence should not hamper students and teachers, it is a factor that must be kept in the back of our minds. As teachers, we look for ways to prevent violence from our students. We strive to work together with others within the school to create a safe environment for all.






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Kandice Gauthier
Joshua McCarthy
Kari Naylor
Katie Mitchell
Alison Williams

Kari Naylor- Notes
1. Title of Article: School Violence and the News
A.) The rate of crime involving physical harm has been declining at U.S. schools since the early 1990s.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fewer than 1% of all homicides among school-age children happen on school grounds or on the way to and from school. The vast majority of students will never experience violence at school or in college.
B.) Talking to your kids
It's important for kids to feel like they can share their feelings, and know that their fears and anxieties are understandable. Rather than waiting for your child to approach you, consider starting the conversation. Ask kids what they understand about these incidents and how they feel about them.
C.) What Schools Are Doing
Many schools are taking extra precautions to keep students safe. Some have focused on keeping weapons out by conducting random locker and bag checks, limiting entry and exit points at the school, and keeping the entryways under teacher supervision. Other schools use metal detectors. Lessons on conflict resolution have been added to many schools' courses to help prevent troubled students from resorting to violence. Peer counseling and active peer programs help students become more aware of the signs that a fellow student may be becoming more troubled or violent. Another thing that helps make schools safer is greater awareness of problems like bullying and discrimination.
Source: Dowshen, S. (2008, February). School violence and the news. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/talk/school_violence.html#

2. Title of Article: Youth Violence Prevention

A.) Between 1995 and 1999, the percentage of students 12 to 18 who avoided one or more places at school out of fear for their safety decreased from 9 to 5 percent. Students were also less likely to fear being attacked or harmed at school (a decrease from 9 percent in 1995 to 5 percent in 1999) or while traveling to and from school (a decrease from 7 percent in 1995 to 4 percent in 1999). Finally, the percentage of students who reported that street gangs, a major source of intimidation and violence, were present at their schools decreased from 29 percent in 1995 to 17 percent in 1999

B.) The rate of nonfatal violent crimes at school has declined from 48 per 1,000 students in 1992 to 33 per 1000 in 1999. The rate of serious school-related violent crime, including rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault, has also generally declined over that time period. In 1999, 7 out of every 1000 students were victims of serious violent crimes while at school or going to and from school.

C.) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)
The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control is actively involved in efforts to
prevent school violence, collaborating with other federal agencies to devise promising longterm
solutions to the prevention of youth violence in schools and elsewhere. NCIPC has funded the evaluation of a number of school-based interventions that may reduce injuries and deaths related to interpersonal violence among adolescents. NCIPC has also funded the implementation and evaluation of school-based interventions that are designed to prevent violence-related injuries among high-risk youth.

Source: National youth violence prevention resource center. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/facts/docs/school.pdf

3. Title of Article: Understanding School Violence
Notes:

A.) School Environment Approximately 38% of public schools reported at least one incident of violence to police during 2005-2006.1 In 2007, 23% of students reported gangs at their schools.1 From 2003-2004, 10% of teachers in city schools reported that they were threatened with injury by students, compared with 6% of teachers in suburban schools, and 5% in rural schools.1
B.) Risk Behaviors In 2007, a nationwide survey of students in grades 9-12 reported the following risk behaviors: 5.9% of students carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on school property during the 30 days before the survey.3 • 7.8% of students were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the 12 months before the survey.3 • 12.4% of students were in a physical fight on school property during the 12 months before the survey.3 • 22.3% of students were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property during the 12 months before the survey.
C.) Nonfatal Victimization In 2006, there were 29 violent crimes at school per 1,000 students.1 This included rape, both sexual and aggravated assault, and robbery. In 2007, about 32% of students reported being bullied during the school year.1 About 4% of students reported being cyber-bullied in 2007.1• Children who bully are more likely to get into fights, vandalize property, skip school, and drop out of school.

Source: Understanding school violence. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/schoolviolence_factsheet-a.pdf


Joshua Jay McCarthy
Tech Lab
2010

1. Psychological adjustment in bullies and victims of school violence
A. “…bullying has four main characteristics: (1) is a violent (2) intentional behavior, (3) which occurs over time, and (4) involves a power imbalance” ßThings for teachers to be aware of when dealing with school violence.

B. “most of the research on bullying has focused on “pure
bullies” and “pure victims”, overlooking those adolescents who are at the same time
aggressors and victims.”
ßInteresting because as a child, I fell in both the “aggressor” and “victim” categories
C. “it seems that quality of relationships with parents and teachers could also play a relevant role in the explanation of low levels of satisfaction with life in bullies obtained in the current study.”
ß Something to explain to parents when confronted with school violence issues at parent teacher conferences.

Estévez, E, Murgui, S, & Musitu, G. (2009). Psychological adjustment in bullies and victims of school violence. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XXIV. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy-fs.researchport.umd.edu/ehost/pdf?vid=1&hid=9&sid=b74b191e-2854-4041-b777-1c56525a3352%40sessionmgr11
2. Guns, Gangs, and the Underclass: A Constructionist Analysis of Gun Violence in a Toronto High School

A. “…when the media are confronted with a ‘‘must cover’’ event but lack essential information, the tendency is to adopt pre-existing, consonant frameworks.” ß shows that you cannot rely solely on the media to learn more on school violence, as the media has their own agenda, one must seek out information on their own to learn more about school violence and how to prevent it

B. “In his analysis of post-Columbine media coverage, Muschert (2007a), for example, reveals the extent to which the media have perpetuated the myth of the child ‘‘super predator’’ – a vicious killer utterly devoid of feelings and incapable of remorse.” ß Simply reinforces the first note: that the media can twist facts and create hysteria from unsubstantiated data that proves to be counterfactual

C. “As secondary claims makers, experts play a critical role in the process of defining and thus resolving a social problem (Loseke2003). In the wake of previous school shootings, for example, the media sought expert opinion in order to explain what seemed so difficult to comprehend. According to Lawrence and Birkland (2004), these experts usually point to individual or systemic causal factors, ranging from flawed character, on the one hand, to violent video games, rock, or rap/hip hop music and teen culture, on the other. At the same time, claims that youth in general face an [sic] ubiquitous risk of being victimized are often made.” ßIt’s important to quickly dispel these “factors” when dealing with the issue of school violence in public. Simply put these are all stereotypes, and as such can only lead to counterproductive work in which entire cultural groups are singled out with suspicion based on their hobbies.

O’Grady, W, Parnaby, P, & Schikschneit, J. (2010). Guns, gangs, and the underclass: a constructionist analysis of gun violence in a Toronto high school. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 52(1), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy-fs.researchport.umd.edu/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=9&sid=c3222a39-8ead-4fdc-b764-e18151ac7abb%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d doi: 10.3138/cjccj.52.1.55

3. Improving the school environment to reduce school violence

A. Recent statistics indicate that 63 out of every 1000 students in U.S. schools are the victims of violence at school. ß Important statistical data when formulating a presentation on school violence.

B. “Using the classification system, studies show that lower rates of school violence were associated with the following:
• Positive relationships with teachers. Interestingly feeling a sense of belonging had no association with violence, though belonging to a negative peer group was associated with an increase in violence.
• A student population that is aware of school rules and believes they are fair.
• Students who have ownership in their school. Academic values and ability were not as good of predictors of decreased school violence.
• Classroom and school environments that are positive and focused on student comprehension.” ß Great tips on how to reduce school violence

C. School principals can place more emphasis on student bonding, encouraging positive school classrooms and the creation of new student organizations. ß Great advice for anyone who wishes to become a superintendent of some sort after graduating Frostburg.

Johnson, S. (2009, October). Improving the school environment to reduce school violence. Journal of School Health, 79(10), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy-fs.researchport.umd.edu/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=9&sid=e09895c7-7284-48af-87e3-778569d734b5%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2009.00435.x


Alison Williams' Notes

A. Understanding School Violence
a. School violence is a subset of youth violence, a broader public health problem. Youth violence refers to harmful behaviors that may start early and continue into young adulthood. It includes a variety of behaviors such as bullying, slapping, punching, and weapon use. Victims can suffer serious injury, significant social and emotional damage, or even death. The young person can be a victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence—or a combination of these. Detailed information about youth violence is available online at www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention

b. School Environment• Approximately 38% of public schools reported at least one incident of violence to police during 2005-2006.1• In 2007, 23% of students reported gangs at their schools.1 • From 2003-2004, 10% of teachers in city schools reported that they were threatened with injury by students, compared with 6% of teachers in suburban schools, and 5% in rural schools.1

c. Risk Behaviors In 2007, a nationwide survey of students in grades 9-12 reported the following risk behaviors:• 5.9% of students carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on school property during the 30 days before the survey.3 • 7.8% of students were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the 12 months before the survey.3 • 12.4% of students were in a physical fight on school property during the 12 months before the survey.3 • 22.3% of students were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property during the 12 months before the survey.

Understanding school violence: fact sheet. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/SchoolViolence_FactSheet-a.pdf

B. Strategies to keep schools safe
a. School violence wears many faces. It includes gang activity, locker thefts, bullying and intimidation, gun use, assault—just about anything that produces a victim. Violence is perpetrated against students, teachers, and staff, and ranges from intentional vendettas to accidental killings of bystanders. Often, discussions of school violence are lumped together with discussions of school discipline generally, as both involve questions of how to maintain order in a school.


b. We divide school violence-prevention methods into three classes—measures related to school management (that is, related to discipline and punishment), measures related to environmental modification (for instance, video cameras, security guards, and uniforms), and educational and curriculum-based measures (for instance, conflict-resolution and gang-prevention programs). All methods have their advantages and disadvantages.

c. There is no one-size-fits-all solution.

d. Our general conclusion is to encourage innovation and experimentation in schools through decentralization and deregulation. Incentives matter, so effectively addressing school violence must include some level of parental choice, and an emphasis on private, voluntary, contractual methods rather than compulsory ones.
Volokh, A, & Snell, L. (1998, January 1). Strategies to keep schools safe. Reason Foundation, Retrieved from http://reason.org/news/show/1007114.html
C. Frequency of School Violence

a. In the last several years, violent crimes at school have declined, and fewer students are carrying weapons to school or getting into fights. A 2001 national survey of high school students reported:
i. 6% of students (and 10% of male students) said they had carried a weapon to school in the last month - a decrease of 45% since 1993;
ii. Almost 13% said that they had been involved in a physical fight on school property in the past year - a decrease of 23% since 1993; and

b. However, students tell us that bullying continues to be a serious problem, particularly in middle schools. In 2001, about 14 percent of 6th graders reported being bullied, compared with about 9 percent of 9th graders and about 2 percent of 12th graders. The 2001 survey also found:
i. 9% of students said they had been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the past year;
ii. Almost 7% said they had missed at least one day of school in the last month because they felt unsafe at school or when traveling to or from school - an increase of 50% from 1993.

c. In terms of risk for homicide, schools are about the safest place for teens - safer than their homes or their neighborhoods - and violent deaths at schools or school events are extremely rare. In the 1998-99 school year, less than 1% of the violent deaths of children and youth in the United States were school-related. A total of 33 children and teens were murdered on school property, at a school event, or on their way to and from school.

d. School-associated homicides involving a single victim have actually decreased significantly since the 1994-95 school year, but an increase in the rate of multiple-victim homicides has lead to a small but significant rise in the overall number of deaths. Homicides at school continue to be extremely rare,
Frequency of school violence. (2007, December 28). Retrieved from http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/faq/freqschoolviol.asp



Katie Mitchell
Tech Lab 1
Hi, my name is Katie Mitchell. I'm technically in Phase 2 but I still have to take this tech lab class which is why I haven't been in class lately because of my other Phase 2 classes. I did let Dr. Ladores know about my situation so she told me to post this to let my group know. Here are my three articles and notes. I won't be able to attend class tomorrow because of a seminar but I will be in class the Friday after spring break to hopefully help write the paper. So have a great spring break!

1. School Safety

  • According to a report published by the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, during the 2007-08 school year, 21 school-age children were killed on their school campuses and five committed suicide at school.

  • That same year 85% of public schools documented that at least one violent crime, theft, or other crime occurred on their campuses.

  • From 1992-93 to 2007-08, one to nine youths committed suicide on school campuses each school year, with no pattern of an increase or decrease from year to year.

  • There was an overall decline in rates of victimization at schools for youths aged 12-18 from 1992-2007, but the crime rate on school campuses did not change significantly between 2004-2007.

Zehr, M. (2009). SCHOOL SAFETY. Education Week, 29(15), 5. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=16&hid=108&sid=b4b19bd1-8f76-4f2f-a63c-dc004dc9c49c%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=47581796.

2. School Violence

Recent study of the Class of 2000 CBS News found:

  • 96% of students said they felt safe in school.
  • 22% of those same students said that they knew students who regularly carried weapons to school.
  • 53% said that a school shooting could happen in their own school

According to the National School Safety Center's Report on School Associated Violent Deaths:

  • Since the 1993-93 school year, 270 violent deaths have occurred at schools across the nation.
  • The majority of these deaths were shooting victims.
  • The number of deaths in the 1999-2000 school year was almost one quarter the number that occurred in 1992-3.

Findings from the the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics for the 1996-7:

  • 57% of public elementary and secondary school principals stated that one or more incidents of crime or violence were reported to the police
  • 10% of all public schools had one or more serious violent crimes (murder, rape, sexual battery, suicide, physical attack or fight with a weapon, or robbery)
  • The most reported crime was physical attacks or fights without a weapon
  • Most of the serious violent crimes occurred in the middle and high schools
  • A larger percentage of violent crimes occurred in city schools and in large schools (over 1000 students)

Kelly, M. (2007). School Violence. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/cs/schoolviolence/a/schoolviolence.htm.

3. Stopping school shootings

The authors of the journal called Aggression and Violent Behavior identified six strategies that could help reduce the vulnerability of schools to a deadly shooting incident:

  • Strengthening students' involvement in their school
  • Reducing social aggression through conflict resolution programs
  • Breaking down codes of silence, in which there is an agreement among students not to share information with teachers and parents
  • Establishing resources for trouble and rejected students (Safe School Initiative found that 71% of attackers had experienced some bullying and harassment)
  • Increasing basic security measures
  • Bolstering communication within the school by implementing a text message alert system and communication between school and community agencies

C., J. (2009). Stopping school shootings. Psychologist, 22(5), 382-383. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=19&hid=108&sid=b4b19bd1-8f76-4f2f-a63c-dc004dc9c49c%40sessionmgr112.

PREVENTIVE PORTION OF THE PAPER -Joshua McCarthy
Regarding preventative measures to insure a safe and secure school environment, Doctor William Pollack insists that “creating a climate of mutual respect, not fear, is essential to keeping schools safe.” (Fritz) and that mean the students in the classroom need to respect their teacher, not fear the teacher as much or more than the threat that may be looming just beyond the classroom door. This is doubly true for elementary school children, who still hold view adults as forces of “supreme power” and may feel intimidated around a teacher or adult who they don’t completely trust. This would explain “why some children … chose to tell an adult, while others did not,” (Fritz) so in order to prevent violence in your school, establish a bond between you, the teacher, and your classroom. Additionally, something to discuss with the faculty at your own school would be to work on creating a rule system that is viewed by the students as both easy to follow and fair. After all, “a student population that is aware of school rules and believes they are fair” (Johnson) is more likely to fall in line with the guidelines set before them.

Now the next step after you have established a dialogue with your students, is to discuss safety procedures amongst your fellow teachers and school board if need be. If your school is without them, you may find it prudent to push for “[installing] video security cameras install school buildings and around the perimeter of the property” (Darden) if only to let students know that their actions on school property will not go unnoticed. Before embarking on this “safety crusade” however, be aware that some people, particularly members of the school board, prefer a “libertarian” approach to school security and feel that students should be given privacy and freedom, not cameras and metal detectors. It will be your job to persuade the school board to take a more proactive role in school security, and can point out that steps need to be taken before tragedy strikes, and that preventing just a single incident can make the addition of more security worthwhile. School boards in particular “are motivated as much by a dread of potential liability
as a sense of foreboding” (Darden) so if they can be convinced that the issue is serious enough, they will be more inclined to take swift and immediate action instead of waiting for the worst to happen.